OCEAN HEALTH
René Quinton - a true pioneer in Ocean Sciences - and there are others in our pages.
   
EXPERIMENT ON A DOG WITH MARINE PLASMA
DURING A STAGE OF HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK
 
Operating on a dog
 
By Delalande Medical Research Center (France)
under the directorship of Dr. B. Pourrias and Dr. G. Raynod – May 1969
 

 
METHODS
 
This study was performed on a dog. The animal was anaesthetized by an intravenous channel, and with the use of a barbiturate (pentobarbital, 25 mg/kg).
 
The arterial systolic pressure was measured at the posterior member with a pressure meter (E & M INSTRUMENTS COMPANY, HOUSTON, TEXAS).
 
An electrocardiogram was taken at a derivation of d1 - d2 - d3.
 
A state of hemorrhagic shock was produced by rapidly extracting a volume of 30 ml/kg of  arterialblood. The extraction represented 50 - 60% volume of a total circulating blood.
 
The following biological constants were controlled: hemoglobin, blood sugar, uremia. The hermatocrit and the blood count, were all also examined.
 
After the state of shock had been induced, which was shown by the dramatic drop in arterial systolic pressure, bradycardia, bradyspnoea, The isotonic seawater [Ocean plasma] was slowly injected.
 
After the animal awoke, further biological examinations were carried out, 24 hours, 4 days, 8 and 15 days later, after The hemorrhagic shock.
 
RESULTS
 
The experiment was carried out on a Beagle of one year of age, that weighed 12 kg.
 
a) Preliminary examinations before The operation were as follows:
Biological examinations: speed of sedimentation, hematocrit, blood counts, average blood volume (V.G.M.) hemoglobin, sugars and uremia.
 
  • Clinical examinations: observation of the dog's behaviour and rectal determination of body temperature.
  • Examination showed that the dog was physiologically normal. The results of the tests are shown on the table attached to the study.
     
b) Operating Time
 
Under anesthesia, the systolic pressure of the animal was 160 mmHg, his cardiac rate was 140 beats/min., his breathing was 2 liters/min.
 
The blood was extracted from the artery behind the knee. The volume that was extracted was 500 ml at 30 min. This volume of blood represented 54% of the total volume of blood.
 
The symptomatology of the state of shock was observed in ail its stages:
 
  • The increase of the rhythm of breathing and heart function.
  • The depression of breathing and heart function and arterial pressure.
     
At the end of the extraction, the peripheral arterial systolic pressure was 0, as well as the breathing. The cardiac rhythm was 50 beats/min approximately.
 
The Marine Plasma was then administered by way of intravenous drip in the saphera vein in two fractions. The total volume administered was 300 ml, that is, 60% of the volume extracted.
 
After 15 minutes of the administration of 300 ml of Quinton Plasma:
  • The cardiac rhythm was 132 beats/min.;
  • The arterial pressure was 180 mm Hg. 
After the depression of the arterial pressure, the animal was connected to a respirator.
At 30 minutes, the arterial pressure was 170 mm Hg. At 60 minutes, the arterial pressure was 120 mm Hg and the cardiac rhythm was 150 beats/min.
 
c) Post Operative Examinations
 
The extraction of blood for the purpose of hematological control was made after the dog awoke, 4 hours after having been anaesthetized and 3 hours after the administration of the Marine Plasma. The same examinations were followed 24 hours, 4 days, 6 days, 8 days and 15 days after the intervention. The results are to be found in the attached table (best seen as 1024x768).
 
MARINE PLASMA
CLINICAL EXPERIMENT ON A DOG - BIOLOGICAL EXAMINATIONS
DELALANDE MEDICAL RESEARCH CENTER - FRANCE
 
 
 
Before hemorr-
hagic shock
 
At
awake-
ning
After hemorrhagic shock
24 hrs
4 days
6 days
8 days
15 days
Red Blood Cell Count
(in thousands)
6480
4140
4980
4410
 
3280
 
4000
 
5260
Leucocites:
Neutrophils
Basophils
Eosinophils
Lymphocytes
Monocytes
14600
77%
-
-
21%
2%
4960
59%
-
1%
40%
-
8840
87%
-
-
13%
-
5840
69%
-
4%
25%
2%
20380
63%
-
1%
33%
-
20840
66%
-
3%
30%
1%
16240
71%
-
5%
22%
2%
Hematocrit %
49
33
31
33
35
37
40
Blood Cell Volume (VGM)
70
79
62
74
106
92
76
Hemoglobin (g/dl)
17.3
11.5
11
11.2
12
13
15.8
Blood Sugar g/l
0.50
1
0.70
0.69
0.63
0.51
0.20
Uremia g/l
0.43
0.47
0.21
0.47
0.47
0.49
0.54
 
DISCUSSION
 
a) At awakening
 
The arterial pressure diminished by 40% of the initial pressure, after having passed a period of total recuperation (180 mm Hg), 15 mm and 30 mm after the administration of the Ocean (Quinton) Plasma.
 
We observed a reduction of 36% of the number of red blood cells, and a 65% reduction of the number of leucocytes. The average volume of blood cells remained practically the same. The total hemoglobin diminished by 25%. Blood sugar increased by 100%, probably due to the hyper activity of the sympathetic adrenal glands.
 
b) The period of 1-4 days after the intervention
 
The hematocrit remained at the post operative level, as well as the number of red blood cells. The number of leucocytes rosé every 24 hours.
Blood sugar tended towards normal.
 
The urine level in the blood was within the norm (0,10- 0,40 g/liter).
 
c) Measurements at the 6th and 8th days
 
We observed a drop in the number of red blood cells and an increase in leucocytes. The average volume of blood cells rose, although they could have diminished, which would have been a sign of macrocytosis anemia. The level of hemoglobin and blood sugar returned to the initial values.
 
d) 15th day
 
The biological values practically return to their original levels, with the exception of the blood sugar. It was to be noted that the oxygenation of the venal blood was found to be at 16%, at the brachial vein, the normal level for a dog.
 
Observation:
 
It was noted that the dog recuperated after the hemorrhagic shock and was able to stand up and take on a normal attitude. Post operation recovery of the diuretic and nutrition developed normally. The cicatrizing of the artery was rapid and there was no need for antibiotics or sulphamides.
 
CONCLUSION
 
This experiment, which was limited to a single case, showed the recovery of a dog after having experienced hemorrhagic shock due to the extraction of 55% of the volume of its blood, and the replacement of 60% with Marine Plasma, as well as the reproduction of the observations and results obtained by René Quinton, as described in his famous book, “L'eau de mer, milieu organique", (Ocean water, organic environment, page 169, Masson edition, 1912.) 
 
      B. Pourrias
 
 
   
      G. Raynaud
 

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